Can You Run a Mini Split on Solar


Using solar power to run a mini-split system is not only feasible, it is an efficient choice. This eco-friendly solution addresses energy consumption concerns while providing an alternative to traditional power sources.

In this article, we’ll explore the dynamics of direct and indirect solar power for mini-splits, discuss the types of compatible units, and guide you through choosing an effective mini-split and solar panel combination.

Solar Energy Options for Powering a Mini Split: Direct and Indirect

You have two options for using solar energy to power your ductless mini splits.

You can buy a pre-designed solution with the split AC unit and the required solar panels and electronics, or you can get a conventional mini split and size and set up the solar system yourself.

Let’s have a look at each one.

Solar-Powered Mini Split Units

Ready-made solar-powered mini split AC units are all-in-one, drawing power directly from the included solar panels. These versatile units can be predominantly used indoors in portable scenarios such as RVs, boating, and camping.

A significant advantage of these units is that you can easily install them with minimal technical expertise, as everything is pre-sized and included in the package.

They are highly energy-efficient, making them a green solution with zero greenhouse gas emissions. They also seamlessly switch between solar and grid power, enhancing their functionality.

However, there can be drawbacks, such as lower efficiency than traditional air conditioners and a higher upfront cost.

Powering Conventional Mini Split Units Using Custom Solar Panel Systems

Conventional mini split units can be powered using a custom solar power system for those looking for a more hands-on approach.

This arrangement involves separately obtaining solar panels and setting up a solar generator that captures, stores, and supplies solar energy to your mini-split and other devices.

This setup requires more technical knowledge to size and configure the system correctly. On the bright side, the solar system’s components can be repurposed if already available, potentially reducing the cost.

Types of Mini Split Units Compatible With Solar Power

Solar power is compatible with several mini-split units: DC-powered, AC-powered, and hybrid. Each type has its unique features, advantages, and limitations.

Choosing the right option depends on your specific needs, budget, and how much sunlight your location receives.

DC-Powered Mini Split Units

DC-powered mini split unit

DC-powered mini split units are directly powered by the Direct Current electricity that solar panels produce.

They are an excellent choice for off-the-grid living as they require minimal extra equipment.

AC-Powered Mini Split Units

AC-powered mini split unit

AC-powered mini split units function on Alternating Current, which is achieved by converting the Direct Current from solar panels.

These units are versatile as they can operate on grid and solar power.

Hybrid Mini Split Units

Hybrid Mini Split Unit

Hybrid units combine the advantages of DC and AC units, as they can switch between DC and AC power.

They can connect to both solar panels and the grid, allowing them to switch between power sources depending on availability automatically.

What to Look for in a Mini Split Solar Panel Combination

When considering a mini split solar panel combination, the key is to find a match that fulfills your energy requirements effectively and efficiently.

This compatibility is about ensuring the system works and maximizing the benefits of your investment in solar energy. Here are some critical factors to consider:

High SEER Rating

The Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) is a crucial factor. It is a measure of an AC unit’s cooling efficiency. The higher the SEER rating, the less power the unit requires.

Aim for a mini-split unit with a minimum SEER rating of 21-23. However, units with SEER ratings up to 25-35 are available and provide even better energy efficiency.

Heat Pump vs. Air Conditioner Only

Determine whether you want a unit that can heat and cool (a heat pump system) or a unit that only cools (an air conditioner).

Most mini-split units are heat pumps, meaning they can reverse refrigerant flow using a reversing valve, allowing them to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer.

Ensure you check the unit’s capabilities before purchase, as some only operate in air conditioner mode.

Matching Voltage and Power Requirements

Ensure the mini split and solar panel system match power and voltage requirements. This will ensure optimal operation and longevity of both systems.

Efficient Solar System Sizing

The mini-split should be correctly sized for the intended area. Consider factors like the room’s square footage, climate, and insulation levels when deciding on the size.

How Many Watts Does A Mini Split Use?

The energy consumption of a mini split unit is usually defined in terms of Tons of Refrigeration, where 1 ton corresponds to 12,000 British Thermal Units (BTU) of cooling.

The BTU rating quantifies the heat a unit can remove from a room.

The higher the BTU, the more powerful the mini split, and consequently, the more watts it requires to function. Here’s a detailed table outlining the wattage requirements for mini splits of various BTU ratings:

wattage requirements for mini splits of various BTU ratings

How Many Solar Panels Are Needed to Run a Mini Split?

The exact number of solar panels you will need to run a mini split depends on its specific power requirements and the amount of solar energy available at your location.

As a quick reference, the following tables illustrate how many 330W solar panels you would need to power different sizes of mini splits running for different periods:

Solar panels needed to run a 1 Ton Mini Split
Solar panels needed to run a 1.5 Ton Mini Split

These calculations consider only the panel’s rated power under optimal conditions, but in reality, factors like weather, the angle of the panels, and shading can affect the total energy produced.

To size the solar system for your specific mini-split, follow the steps below:

Estimate the Required Output Power of Your System

  1. Begin by understanding your mini split’s power usage. This can usually be found in the user manual or the device’s label. Calculate the wattage by the hours you expect to operate the system daily to get your average daily kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage.
  2. Identify your location’s average peak sunlight hours. You can use this calculator to know the peak sunlight hours at your location for every month of the year.
  3. The Design Factor (DF) is a value used to account for various power losses during solar power production and conversion. Choose a DF of 1.35 for hot climates and critical applications or 1.2 for moderate climates and non-critical applications.
  4. With this information, calculate the power your solar system needs to produce using the following formula:

\(Solar\ System\ Required\ Power = \displaystyle {\frac {Average\ Daily\ kWh\ Usage}{Peak\ sunlight\ hours}} * DF\)

Determine the Number of Solar Panels Needed

  1. Select a solar panel model from a reputable manufacturer and note its rated power output (usually expressed in watts).
  2. Calculate the number of solar panels you’ll need using this formula:

\(No.\ of\ solar\ panels = \displaystyle {\frac {Solar\ System\ Required\ Power}{Power\ output\ of\ a\ single\ panel}}\)

Select a Suitable Solar Inverter (If needed)

The need for an inverter depends on whether your mini split system is AC or DC.

If you have an AC unit, you’ll need an inverter to convert the DC power generated by the solar panels into AC power the mini split can use.

You will not need an inverter if your mini split is a DC unit, which will save costs and improve the overall efficiency of your solar setup, as there are no conversion losses.

If you require an inverter, ensure its capacity matches or slightly exceeds the maximum DC output of your solar panels for efficient power handling. Verify the inverter can meet your mini split’s peak power demand.

Incorporate Battery Storage to Ensure Uninterrupted Operation

Incorporating batteries in the system is crucial to guarantee your mini split operates smoothly, even during periods of low sunlight.

It stores excess power generated during peak sunlight hours when solar power production decreases or is non-existent.

The size of your battery bank impacts the size of your solar system. When sizing your battery, consider your mini split’s daily energy demand and how many hours you’ll need backup power.

Once you know the battery capacity required (measured in kWh), calculate the additional solar power needed to charge the battery.

This is done by dividing the battery capacity by the battery round-trip efficiency, typically around 0.85.

Now, recalculate the Solar System Required Power and the number of solar panels needed to include this additional power demand from battery charging.

Validate Your Solar System Size

With your estimated solar system size, validate your design using an online solar calculator, such as the PVWatts Solar Calculator by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

The calculator will provide an estimate of the monthly power production of the designed system, helping you confirm if your system sizing is appropriate for your needs.

Benefits of Powering Your Ductless Mini-Split with Solar

Ductless Mini-Split installed in new house

You enjoy numerous benefits when you connect a ductless mini-split heat pump to a solar power system. Here’s a breakdown of these perks:

Cut Your Utility Bills

Your reliance on the grid decreases when you use solar power. This can significantly reduce your monthly utility costs.

Furthermore, if your solar system generates more power than you need, you might earn credits from your utility provider for the surplus electricity.

Contribute to a Better Environmental Impact

Using solar power means less dependence on fossil fuels, resulting in a lower carbon footprint and air pollution. This aids in slowing the adverse effects of climate change.

Promote Sustainable Practices

Ductless mini-split systems meet high-efficiency standards as set by Energy Star.

The refrigerant used, R410A, poses no harm to the ozone layer. Coupled with solar power, this setup significantly lowers your carbon emissions.

Boost Property Value

A home with solar-powered features tends to have a higher market value.

Prospective buyers appreciate the long-term savings and eco-friendly benefits solar energy systems offer.

Take Advantage of Government Incentives

Some regions offer financial incentives for installing solar power systems. This can reduce your initial investment and quicken the payback period.

Achieve Energy Independence

Generating your power lessens your dependence on utility providers. This is particularly helpful in regions with high or fluctuating electricity costs.

Enjoy Low Maintenance

Solar panels need minimal maintenance once installed, reducing the potential cost and inconvenience of regular system upkeep.

Experience Quiet Operation

Solar panels generate electricity silently, offering a noise-free alternative to conventional power generators.

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